But, as in the U. Although there are no specifically anti-gay laws in Italy and the age of consent is fourteen for both heterosexuals and homosexuals, the Right, backed by the Vatican, has blocked attempts to enact pro-gay legislation. Some progressives have been fighting to pass a bill that would provide legal recognition to same-sex couples along the lines of the Civil Solidarity Pact passed in France in Others on the Left, both gay and otherwise, are pushing for same-sex marriage, although the more centrist members of the center-left coalition are opposed.
The late, obsessively homophobic Pope John Paul II made it his personal mission to block any and all pro-gay initiatives, and the accession of the former Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger to the papacy portends more of the same.
But Nicola Vendola, who arrived in Rome some twenty years ago from the poor and often denigrated South, armed with poetry and militancy, already has achieved things of which gay radicals elsewhere only dream. Log In My Account. Home Articles. By George De Stefano on July 1, George De Stefano. Save the Planet!
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In contrast to feminist movements in France and United Kingdom , early women's rights advocates in Italy emphasized women's education and improvement in social conditions. Italian feminism suffered a setback under the fascist government of Benito Mussolini in the first half of the twentieth century, with fascist ideology dictating procreation as a woman's duty. Renaissance thinkers regularly challenged conventional thought from the Medieval period and earlier.
Humanism became the new way of looking at politics, science, the arts, education, and other fields. Humanism pushed aside the Medieval Christian concept of a hierarchical social order that placed regular citizens in a subservient position relative to members of the clergy. The Renaissance man was the ideal to emulate. While the Renaissance humanists were for the most part " antifeminist ",  there were a small number of educated women who had the motivation to challenge assumptions that women should remain submissive to men.
Christine de Pizan wrote The City of Ladies in , and in it she describes women's gender as having no innate inferiority to men's: "2733either the loftiness nor the lowliness of a person lies in the body according to sex, but in the perfection of conduct and virtues". Renaissance Italy saw the development of higher education , including the establishment of several universities , to which women were not admitted. Some fortunate women who could afford it were able to gain an education on their own, or had a father who allowed them to have some education through tutoring.
The rare Renaissance man who supported education for women saw it as a way of improving her virtue , and to make her more obedient to her husband. Education intended to create leaders was seen as wasted on women. Although some women made a mark during the Renaissance as remarkable individuals within their local sphere, when taken collectively, the "rise of the educated woman during the Renaissance" can be traced.
From the Renaissance and continuing into the Early Modern era, they hosted salons , where men and women of intellect mingled and discussed literature, politics, and other influential topics. By the late 16th and early 17th century, women writers "presented themselves and were embraced by contemporary culture as learned wives, mothers, and equal partners in their household salons".
The Virgin Reading —10 , by Vittore Carpaccio. Literacy spread among upper class women in Italy during the Renaissance. Catherine de' Medici , Italian-born 16th century Queen consort of France, mother of kings, and a major figure in European politics.
Self-portrait as the Allegory of Painting by Artemisia Gentileschi. At a time when most women belonged to the peasant class , most were illiterate. Educated women who could read and write about feminism's various aspects were in an isolated position. In order to gain supporters for feminist causes, an appeal to women at all levels of society was needed.
Beginning in the midth century, enterprising women began to reach out to middle-class women through new print media: mass-market books and periodicals. Italy's Casati Law of set the groundwork for a system to train young women as teachers in public schools. Women were to become the backbone of Italy's education system , and they belonged to teachers' associations , giving them experience in organizing to protect their interests, such as wages and working conditions.
Anna Maria Mozzoni triggered a widespread women's movement in Italy through the publication of Woman and her social relationships on the occasion of the revision of the Italian Civil Code La donna e i suoi rapporti sociali in occasione della revisione del codice italiano in Women who had participated in the unification struggles were dissatisfied with the inequalities contained in the Republic of Italy's new Civil Code. Mozzoni campaigned against state regulation of prostitution. In , to promote women's suffrage, she founded the League for the Promotion of the Interests of Women Lega promotrice degli interessi femminili in Milan.
Alaide Gualberta Beccari , beginning in at the age of 16, began publishing the journal Women in Venice.
Retrieved 14 November In the end the battle for the gay family takes on radical connotations in opposition to the Vatican attacks. Valentina Nappi with fucking machine 4 years ago PornHub. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. That's not your job. This time, she didn't even try to conceal her gaze as my lifting legs revealed my most intimate parts. Among the salient passages:.
Beccari spent much of the s and s immersed in spreading information about feminism. The journal covered international feminist news, such as the political and social gains being made by women in France, the United States, and Great Britain. Male legislators and teachers were among her growing readership, and in , a series of articles on pro-reform topics inspired women to sign a petition for women's suffrage. Women were admitted to Italian universities in In women in Italy became able to serve as witnesses to legal acts.
Italy's first national Feminist Congress was organized by Per la Donna in ; in it speakers called for divorce rights for women, and more non-religious schools.
In married women in Italy were granted separate economy, and public offices on lower levels were opened to women. The feminist movement was dealt a huge blow in when Benito Mussolini came to power, and the country's fascist era was underway. This period was generally anti-feminist [ citation needed ]. For example, fascist ideology dictated procreation as a woman's duty.
In women in Italy gained full suffrage.
In , Franca Viola was one of the first Italian women to publicly refuse a "reparational marriage" to her rapist, which would have legally exonerated him for raping her. Franca Viola was only 17 years old when she was raped with the intention of marriage in See below events in As in other countries, feminist groups started in Italy in the s as part of the second wave. In the International Feminist Collective was founded in Italy by Selma James , Brigitte Galtier , Mariarosa Dalla Costa , and Silvia Federici , to promote political debate and action around the issue of housework; the International Wages for Housework Campaign , which grew out of the Collective, was a feminist global social movement founded in in Padua , Italy.
The Campaign was formed to raise awareness of how housework and childcare are the base of all industrial work and to stake the claim that these unavoidable tasks should be compensated as paid wage labor. In , the family law in Italy was reformed to remove adultery as a crime, as well as making it so that male and female partners in a marriage are considered equal by the law.
In in Sentenza n. Among the other major achievements of feminism in Italy in this decade were the introduction of a law for divorce and of a law regulating abortion Italy signed the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women in , and ratified it in The same sentence shall apply to whom, in the above circumstances, causes the death of the person involved in illegitimate carnal relations with his spouse, daughter, or sister.
Also in , Italy repealed Article Neither the law nor society made a distinction between such premarital rape on the one hand, and consensual elopement in Sicily commonly called fuitina on the other. Socially, a woman raped by a man was put under heavy pressure to agree to marrying her rapist; the alternative was being shunned for the rest of her life as una donna svergognata : a "woman without honor" literally: a shameless woman.
She was held responsible for the humiliation of losing her virginity out of wedlock, bringing shame upon herself and her family. If she agreed to marry her attacker, it was considered a "reparational marriage" matrimonio riparatore , that restored her family's honor. In Rome in , a year-old driving instructor was accused of rape. When he picked up an year-old girl for her first driving lesson, he allegedly raped her for an hour, then told her that if she was to tell anyone he would kill her.
Later that night she told her parents and her parents agreed to help her press charges. While the alleged rapist was convicted and sentenced, the Italian Supreme Court overturned the conviction in because the victim wore tight jeans. It was argued that she must have necessarily have had to help her attacker remove her jeans, thus making the act consensual "because the victim wore very, very tight jeans, she had to help him remove them As of at least 20 U.
Wearing jeans on this day has become an international symbol of protest against erroneous and destructive attitudes about sexual assault. As of the Italian Supreme Court has overturned their findings, and there is no longer a "denim" defense to the charge of rape. In , Italy amended its rape laws, toughening the punishment for sexual assault and reclassifying it from a moral offense to a criminal felony. Article 6 of the law integrates the Italian Penal Code with Articles Bis and Ter , punishing any practice of female genital mutilation "not justifiable under therapeutical or medical needs" with imprisonment ranging from 4 to 12 years 3 to 7 years for any mutilation other than, or less severe than, clitoridectomy, excision or infibulation.
An Italian citizen or a foreign citizen legally resident in Italy can be punished under this law even if the offense is committed abroad; the law will as well afflict any individual of any citizenship in Italy, even illegally or provisionally. Italian feminism has become more prominent recently, particularly during the administration of former Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi , with a focus on opposing objectification of women in national television shows and politics.
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